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Sourcecode: fio version File versions

options.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <getopt.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <libgen.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

#include "fio.h"
#include "verify.h"
#include "parse.h"
#include "lib/fls.h"

#define td_var_offset(var)    ((size_t) &((struct thread_options *)0)->var)

/*
 * Check if mmap/mmaphuge has a :/foo/bar/file at the end. If so, return that.
 */
static char *get_opt_postfix(const char *str)
{
      char *p = strstr(str, ":");

      if (!p)
            return NULL;

      p++;
      strip_blank_front(&p);
      strip_blank_end(p);
      return strdup(p);
}

static int bs_cmp(const void *p1, const void *p2)
{
      const struct bssplit *bsp1 = p1;
      const struct bssplit *bsp2 = p2;

      return bsp1->perc < bsp2->perc;
}

static int bssplit_ddir(struct thread_data *td, int ddir, char *str)
{
      struct bssplit *bssplit;
      unsigned int i, perc, perc_missing;
      unsigned int max_bs, min_bs;
      long long val;
      char *fname;

      td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir] = 4;
      bssplit = malloc(4 * sizeof(struct bssplit));

      i = 0;
      max_bs = 0;
      min_bs = -1;
      while ((fname = strsep(&str, ":")) != NULL) {
            char *perc_str;

            if (!strlen(fname))
                  break;

            /*
             * grow struct buffer, if needed
             */
            if (i == td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir]) {
                  td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir] <<= 1;
                  bssplit = realloc(bssplit, td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir]
                                      * sizeof(struct bssplit));
            }

            perc_str = strstr(fname, "/");
            if (perc_str) {
                  *perc_str = '\0';
                  perc_str++;
                  perc = atoi(perc_str);
                  if (perc > 100)
                        perc = 100;
                  else if (!perc)
                        perc = -1;
            } else
                  perc = -1;

            if (str_to_decimal(fname, &val, 1, &td)) {
                  log_err("fio: bssplit conversion failed\n");
                  free(td->o.bssplit);
                  return 1;
            }

            if (val > max_bs)
                  max_bs = val;
            if (val < min_bs)
                  min_bs = val;

            bssplit[i].bs = val;
            bssplit[i].perc = perc;
            i++;
      }

      td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir] = i;

      /*
       * Now check if the percentages add up, and how much is missing
       */
      perc = perc_missing = 0;
      for (i = 0; i < td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir]; i++) {
            struct bssplit *bsp = &bssplit[i];

            if (bsp->perc == (unsigned char) -1)
                  perc_missing++;
            else
                  perc += bsp->perc;
      }

      if (perc > 100) {
            log_err("fio: bssplit percentages add to more than 100%%\n");
            free(bssplit);
            return 1;
      }
      /*
       * If values didn't have a percentage set, divide the remains between
       * them.
       */
      if (perc_missing) {
            for (i = 0; i < td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir]; i++) {
                  struct bssplit *bsp = &bssplit[i];

                  if (bsp->perc == (unsigned char) -1)
                        bsp->perc = (100 - perc) / perc_missing;
            }
      }

      td->o.min_bs[ddir] = min_bs;
      td->o.max_bs[ddir] = max_bs;

      /*
       * now sort based on percentages, for ease of lookup
       */
      qsort(bssplit, td->o.bssplit_nr[ddir], sizeof(struct bssplit), bs_cmp);
      td->o.bssplit[ddir] = bssplit;
      return 0;

}

static int str_bssplit_cb(void *data, const char *input)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      char *str, *p, *odir;
      int ret = 0;

      p = str = strdup(input);

      strip_blank_front(&str);
      strip_blank_end(str);

      odir = strchr(str, ',');
      if (odir) {
            ret = bssplit_ddir(td, DDIR_WRITE, odir + 1);
            if (!ret) {
                  *odir = '\0';
                  ret = bssplit_ddir(td, DDIR_READ, str);
            }
      } else {
            char *op;

            op = strdup(str);

            ret = bssplit_ddir(td, DDIR_READ, str);
            if (!ret)
                  ret = bssplit_ddir(td, DDIR_WRITE, op);

            free(op);
      }

      free(p);
      return ret;
}

static int str_rw_cb(void *data, const char *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      char *nr = get_opt_postfix(str);

      td->o.ddir_nr = 1;
      if (nr) {
            td->o.ddir_nr = atoi(nr);
            free(nr);
      }

      return 0;
}

static int str_mem_cb(void *data, const char *mem)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (td->o.mem_type == MEM_MMAPHUGE || td->o.mem_type == MEM_MMAP) {
            td->mmapfile = get_opt_postfix(mem);
            if (td->o.mem_type == MEM_MMAPHUGE && !td->mmapfile) {
                  log_err("fio: mmaphuge:/path/to/file\n");
                  return 1;
            }
      }

      return 0;
}

static int str_lockmem_cb(void fio_unused *data, unsigned long *val)
{
      mlock_size = *val;
      return 0;
}

static int str_rwmix_read_cb(void *data, unsigned int *val)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      td->o.rwmix[DDIR_READ] = *val;
      td->o.rwmix[DDIR_WRITE] = 100 - *val;
      return 0;
}

static int str_rwmix_write_cb(void *data, unsigned int *val)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      td->o.rwmix[DDIR_WRITE] = *val;
      td->o.rwmix[DDIR_READ] = 100 - *val;
      return 0;
}

#ifdef FIO_HAVE_IOPRIO
static int str_prioclass_cb(void *data, unsigned int *val)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      unsigned short mask;

      /*
       * mask off old class bits, str_prio_cb() may have set a default class
       */
      mask = (1 << IOPRIO_CLASS_SHIFT) - 1;
      td->ioprio &= mask;

      td->ioprio |= *val << IOPRIO_CLASS_SHIFT;
      td->ioprio_set = 1;
      return 0;
}

static int str_prio_cb(void *data, unsigned int *val)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      td->ioprio |= *val;

      /*
       * If no class is set, assume BE
       */
      if ((td->ioprio >> IOPRIO_CLASS_SHIFT) == 0)
            td->ioprio |= IOPRIO_CLASS_BE << IOPRIO_CLASS_SHIFT;

      td->ioprio_set = 1;
      return 0;
}
#endif

static int str_exitall_cb(void)
{
      exitall_on_terminate = 1;
      return 0;
}

#ifdef FIO_HAVE_CPU_AFFINITY
static int str_cpumask_cb(void *data, unsigned int *val)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      unsigned int i;
      long max_cpu;
      int ret;

      ret = fio_cpuset_init(&td->o.cpumask);
      if (ret < 0) {
            log_err("fio: cpuset_init failed\n");
            td_verror(td, ret, "fio_cpuset_init");
            return 1;
      }

      max_cpu = sysconf(_SC_NPROCESSORS_ONLN);

      for (i = 0; i < sizeof(int) * 8; i++) {
            if ((1 << i) & *val) {
                  if (i > max_cpu) {
                        log_err("fio: CPU %d too large (max=%ld)\n", i,
                                                max_cpu);
                        return 1;
                  }
                  dprint(FD_PARSE, "set cpu allowed %d\n", i);
                  fio_cpu_set(&td->o.cpumask, i);
            }
      }

      td->o.cpumask_set = 1;
      return 0;
}

static int set_cpus_allowed(struct thread_data *td, os_cpu_mask_t *mask,
                      const char *input)
{
      char *cpu, *str, *p;
      long max_cpu;
      int ret = 0;

      ret = fio_cpuset_init(mask);
      if (ret < 0) {
            log_err("fio: cpuset_init failed\n");
            td_verror(td, ret, "fio_cpuset_init");
            return 1;
      }

      p = str = strdup(input);

      strip_blank_front(&str);
      strip_blank_end(str);

      max_cpu = sysconf(_SC_NPROCESSORS_ONLN);

      while ((cpu = strsep(&str, ",")) != NULL) {
            char *str2, *cpu2;
            int icpu, icpu2;

            if (!strlen(cpu))
                  break;

            str2 = cpu;
            icpu2 = -1;
            while ((cpu2 = strsep(&str2, "-")) != NULL) {
                  if (!strlen(cpu2))
                        break;

                  icpu2 = atoi(cpu2);
            }

            icpu = atoi(cpu);
            if (icpu2 == -1)
                  icpu2 = icpu;
            while (icpu <= icpu2) {
                  if (icpu >= FIO_MAX_CPUS) {
                        log_err("fio: your OS only supports up to"
                              " %d CPUs\n", (int) FIO_MAX_CPUS);
                        ret = 1;
                        break;
                  }
                  if (icpu > max_cpu) {
                        log_err("fio: CPU %d too large (max=%ld)\n",
                                          icpu, max_cpu);
                        ret = 1;
                        break;
                  }
      
                  dprint(FD_PARSE, "set cpu allowed %d\n", icpu);
                  fio_cpu_set(mask, icpu);
                  icpu++;
            }
            if (ret)
                  break;
      }

      free(p);
      if (!ret)
            td->o.cpumask_set = 1;
      return ret;
}

static int str_cpus_allowed_cb(void *data, const char *input)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      int ret;

      ret = set_cpus_allowed(td, &td->o.cpumask, input);
      if (!ret)
            td->o.cpumask_set = 1;

      return ret;
}

static int str_verify_cpus_allowed_cb(void *data, const char *input)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      int ret;

      ret = set_cpus_allowed(td, &td->o.verify_cpumask, input);
      if (!ret)
            td->o.verify_cpumask_set = 1;

      return ret;
}
#endif

static int str_fst_cb(void *data, const char *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      char *nr = get_opt_postfix(str);

      td->file_service_nr = 1;
      if (nr) {
            td->file_service_nr = atoi(nr);
            free(nr);
      }

      return 0;
}

static int check_dir(struct thread_data *td, char *fname)
{
      char file[PATH_MAX], *dir;
      int elen = 0;

      if (td->o.directory) {
            strcpy(file, td->o.directory);
            strcat(file, "/");
            elen = strlen(file);
      }

      sprintf(file + elen, "%s", fname);
      dir = dirname(file);

#if 0
      {
      struct stat sb;
      /*
       * We can't do this on FIO_DISKLESSIO engines. The engine isn't loaded
       * yet, so we can't do this check right here...
       */
      if (lstat(dir, &sb) < 0) {
            int ret = errno;

            log_err("fio: %s is not a directory\n", dir);
            td_verror(td, ret, "lstat");
            return 1;
      }

      if (!S_ISDIR(sb.st_mode)) {
            log_err("fio: %s is not a directory\n", dir);
            return 1;
      }
      }
#endif

      return 0;
}

static int str_filename_cb(void *data, const char *input)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      char *fname, *str, *p;

      p = str = strdup(input);

      strip_blank_front(&str);
      strip_blank_end(str);

      if (!td->files_index)
            td->o.nr_files = 0;

      while ((fname = strsep(&str, ":")) != NULL) {
            if (!strlen(fname))
                  break;
            if (check_dir(td, fname)) {
                  free(p);
                  return 1;
            }
            add_file(td, fname);
            td->o.nr_files++;
      }

      free(p);
      return 0;
}

static int str_directory_cb(void *data, const char fio_unused *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      struct stat sb;

      if (lstat(td->o.directory, &sb) < 0) {
            int ret = errno;

            log_err("fio: %s is not a directory\n", td->o.directory);
            td_verror(td, ret, "lstat");
            return 1;
      }
      if (!S_ISDIR(sb.st_mode)) {
            log_err("fio: %s is not a directory\n", td->o.directory);
            return 1;
      }

      return 0;
}

static int str_opendir_cb(void *data, const char fio_unused *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (!td->files_index)
            td->o.nr_files = 0;

      return add_dir_files(td, td->o.opendir);
}

static int str_verify_offset_cb(void *data, unsigned int *off)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (*off && *off < sizeof(struct verify_header)) {
            log_err("fio: verify_offset too small\n");
            return 1;
      }

      td->o.verify_offset = *off;
      return 0;
}

static int str_verify_pattern_cb(void *data, unsigned int *off)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      unsigned int msb;

      msb = __fls(*off);
      if (msb <= 8)
            td->o.verify_pattern_bytes = 1;
      else if (msb <= 16)
            td->o.verify_pattern_bytes = 2;
      else if (msb <= 24)
            td->o.verify_pattern_bytes = 3;
      else
            td->o.verify_pattern_bytes = 4;

      td->o.verify_pattern = *off;
      return 0;
}

static int str_lockfile_cb(void *data, const char *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      char *nr = get_opt_postfix(str);

      td->o.lockfile_batch = 1;
      if (nr) {
            td->o.lockfile_batch = atoi(nr);
            free(nr);
      }

      return 0;
}

static int str_write_bw_log_cb(void *data, const char *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (str)
            td->o.bw_log_file = strdup(str);

      td->o.write_bw_log = 1;
      return 0;
}

static int str_write_lat_log_cb(void *data, const char *str)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (str)
            td->o.lat_log_file = strdup(str);

      td->o.write_lat_log = 1;
      return 0;
}

static int str_gtod_reduce_cb(void *data, int *il)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      int val = *il;

      td->o.disable_clat = !!val;
      td->o.disable_slat = !!val;
      td->o.disable_bw = !!val;
      if (val)
            td->tv_cache_mask = 63;

      return 0;
}

static int str_gtod_cpu_cb(void *data, int *il)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      int val = *il;

      td->o.gtod_cpu = val;
      td->o.gtod_offload = 1;
      return 0;
}

static int rw_verify(struct fio_option *o, void *data)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (read_only && td_write(td)) {
            log_err("fio: job <%s> has write bit set, but fio is in"
                  " read-only mode\n", td->o.name);
            return 1;
      }

      return 0;
}

static int gtod_cpu_verify(struct fio_option *o, void *data)
{
#ifndef FIO_HAVE_CPU_AFFINITY
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (td->o.gtod_cpu) {
            log_err("fio: platform must support CPU affinity for"
                  "gettimeofday() offloading\n");
            return 1;
      }
#endif

      return 0;
}

static int kb_base_verify(struct fio_option *o, void *data)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;

      if (td->o.kb_base != 1024 && td->o.kb_base != 1000) {
            log_err("fio: kb_base set to nonsensical value: %u\n",
                        td->o.kb_base);
            return 1;
      }

      return 0;
}

#define __stringify_1(x)      #x
#define __stringify(x)        __stringify_1(x)

/*
 * Map of job/command line options
 */
static struct fio_option options[] = {
      {
            .name = "description",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(description),
            .help = "Text job description",
      },
      {
            .name = "name",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(name),
            .help = "Name of this job",
      },
      {
            .name = "directory",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(directory),
            .cb   = str_directory_cb,
            .help = "Directory to store files in",
      },
      {
            .name = "filename",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(filename),
            .cb   = str_filename_cb,
            .prio = -1, /* must come after "directory" */
            .help = "File(s) to use for the workload",
      },
      {
            .name = "kb_base",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(kb_base),
            .verify     = kb_base_verify,
            .prio = 1,
            .def  = "1024",
            .help = "How many bytes per KB for reporting (1000 or 1024)",
      },
      {
            .name = "lockfile",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_lockfile_cb,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(file_lock_mode),
            .help = "Lock file when doing IO to it",
            .parent     = "filename",
            .def  = "none",
            .posval = {
                    { .ival = "none",
                      .oval = FILE_LOCK_NONE,
                      .help = "No file locking",
                    },
                    { .ival = "exclusive",
                      .oval = FILE_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE,
                      .help = "Exclusive file lock",
                    },
                    {
                      .ival = "readwrite",
                      .oval = FILE_LOCK_READWRITE,
                      .help = "Read vs write lock",
                    },
            },
      },
      {
            .name = "opendir",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(opendir),
            .cb   = str_opendir_cb,
            .help = "Recursively add files from this directory and down",
      },
      {
            .name = "rw",
            .alias      = "readwrite",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_rw_cb,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(td_ddir),
            .help = "IO direction",
            .def  = "read",
            .verify     = rw_verify,
            .posval = {
                    { .ival = "read",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_READ,
                      .help = "Sequential read",
                    },
                    { .ival = "write",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_WRITE,
                      .help = "Sequential write",
                    },
                    { .ival = "randread",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_RANDREAD,
                      .help = "Random read",
                    },
                    { .ival = "randwrite",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_RANDWRITE,
                      .help = "Random write",
                    },
                    { .ival = "rw",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_RW,
                      .help = "Sequential read and write mix",
                    },
                    { .ival = "randrw",
                      .oval = TD_DDIR_RANDRW,
                      .help = "Random read and write mix"
                    },
            },
      },
      {
            .name = "ioengine",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ioengine),
            .help = "IO engine to use",
            .def  = "sync",
            .posval     = {
                    { .ival = "sync",
                      .help = "Use read/write",
                    },
                    { .ival = "psync",
                      .help = "Use pread/pwrite",
                    },
                    { .ival = "vsync",
                       .help = "Use readv/writev",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_LIBAIO
                    { .ival = "libaio",
                      .help = "Linux native asynchronous IO",
                    },
#endif
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_POSIXAIO
                    { .ival = "posixaio",
                      .help = "POSIX asynchronous IO",
                    },
#endif
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_SOLARISAIO
                    { .ival = "solarisaio",
                      .help = "Solaris native asynchronous IO",
                    },
#endif
                    { .ival = "mmap",
                      .help = "Memory mapped IO",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_SPLICE
                    { .ival = "splice",
                      .help = "splice/vmsplice based IO",
                    },
                    { .ival = "netsplice",
                      .help = "splice/vmsplice to/from the network",
                    },
#endif
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_SGIO
                    { .ival = "sg",
                      .help = "SCSI generic v3 IO",
                    },
#endif
                    { .ival = "null",
                      .help = "Testing engine (no data transfer)",
                    },
                    { .ival = "net",
                      .help = "Network IO",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_SYSLET
                    { .ival = "syslet-rw",
                      .help = "syslet enabled async pread/pwrite IO",
                    },
#endif
                    { .ival = "cpuio",
                      .help = "CPU cycler burner engine",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_GUASI
                    { .ival = "guasi",
                      .help = "GUASI IO engine",
                    },
#endif
                    { .ival = "external",
                      .help = "Load external engine (append name)",
                    },
            },
      },
      {
            .name = "iodepth",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(iodepth),
            .help = "Amount of IO buffers to keep in flight",
            .minval = 1,
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "iodepth_batch",
            .alias      = "iodepth_batch_submit",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(iodepth_batch),
            .help = "Number of IO buffers to submit in one go",
            .parent     = "iodepth",
            .minval     = 1,
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "iodepth_batch_complete",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(iodepth_batch_complete),
            .help = "Number of IO buffers to retrieve in one go",
            .parent     = "iodepth",
            .minval     = 0,
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "iodepth_low",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(iodepth_low),
            .help = "Low water mark for queuing depth",
            .parent     = "iodepth",
      },
      {
            .name = "size",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(size),
            .minval = 1,
            .help = "Total size of device or files",
      },
      {
            .name = "fill_device",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(fill_device),
            .help = "Write until an ENOSPC error occurs",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "filesize",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(file_size_low),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(file_size_high),
            .minval = 1,
            .help = "Size of individual files",
      },
      {
            .name = "offset",
            .alias      = "fileoffset",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(start_offset),
            .help = "Start IO from this offset",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "bs",
            .alias      = "blocksize",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(bs[DDIR_READ]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(bs[DDIR_WRITE]),
            .minval = 1,
            .help = "Block size unit",
            .def  = "4k",
            .parent = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "ba",
            .alias      = "blockalign",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ba[DDIR_READ]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(ba[DDIR_WRITE]),
            .minval     = 1,
            .help = "IO block offset alignment",
            .parent     = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "bsrange",
            .alias      = "blocksize_range",
            .type = FIO_OPT_RANGE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(min_bs[DDIR_READ]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(max_bs[DDIR_READ]),
            .off3 = td_var_offset(min_bs[DDIR_WRITE]),
            .off4 = td_var_offset(max_bs[DDIR_WRITE]),
            .minval = 1,
            .help = "Set block size range (in more detail than bs)",
            .parent = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "bssplit",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_bssplit_cb,
            .help = "Set a specific mix of block sizes",
            .parent     = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "bs_unaligned",
            .alias      = "blocksize_unaligned",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(bs_unaligned),
            .help = "Don't sector align IO buffer sizes",
            .parent = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "randrepeat",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(rand_repeatable),
            .help = "Use repeatable random IO pattern",
            .def  = "1",
            .parent = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "norandommap",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(norandommap),
            .help = "Accept potential duplicate random blocks",
            .parent = "rw",
      },
      {
            .name = "softrandommap",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(softrandommap),
            .help = "Set norandommap if randommap allocation fails",
            .parent     = "norandommap",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "nrfiles",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(nr_files),
            .help = "Split job workload between this number of files",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "openfiles",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(open_files),
            .help = "Number of files to keep open at the same time",
      },
      {
            .name = "file_service_type",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_fst_cb,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(file_service_type),
            .help = "How to select which file to service next",
            .def  = "roundrobin",
            .posval     = {
                    { .ival = "random",
                      .oval = FIO_FSERVICE_RANDOM,
                      .help = "Choose a file at random",
                    },
                    { .ival = "roundrobin",
                      .oval = FIO_FSERVICE_RR,
                      .help = "Round robin select files",
                    },
                    { .ival = "sequential",
                      .oval = FIO_FSERVICE_SEQ,
                      .help = "Finish one file before moving to the next",
                    },
            },
            .parent = "nrfiles",
      },
      {
            .name = "fadvise_hint",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(fadvise_hint),
            .help = "Use fadvise() to advise the kernel on IO pattern",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "fsync",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(fsync_blocks),
            .help = "Issue fsync for writes every given number of blocks",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "fdatasync",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(fdatasync_blocks),
            .help = "Issue fdatasync for writes every given number of blocks",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "direct",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(odirect),
            .help = "Use O_DIRECT IO (negates buffered)",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "buffered",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(odirect),
            .neg  = 1,
            .help = "Use buffered IO (negates direct)",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "overwrite",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(overwrite),
            .help = "When writing, set whether to overwrite current data",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "loops",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(loops),
            .help = "Number of times to run the job",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "numjobs",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(numjobs),
            .help = "Duplicate this job this many times",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "startdelay",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(start_delay),
            .help = "Only start job when this period has passed",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "runtime",
            .alias      = "timeout",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL_TIME,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(timeout),
            .help = "Stop workload when this amount of time has passed",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "time_based",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(time_based),
            .help = "Keep running until runtime/timeout is met",
      },
      {
            .name = "ramp_time",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL_TIME,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ramp_time),
            .help = "Ramp up time before measuring performance",
      },
      {
            .name = "mem",
            .alias      = "iomem",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_mem_cb,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(mem_type),
            .help = "Backing type for IO buffers",
            .def  = "malloc",
            .posval     = {
                    { .ival = "malloc",
                      .oval = MEM_MALLOC,
                      .help = "Use malloc(3) for IO buffers",
                    },
                    { .ival = "shm",
                      .oval = MEM_SHM,
                      .help = "Use shared memory segments for IO buffers",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_HUGETLB
                    { .ival = "shmhuge",
                      .oval = MEM_SHMHUGE,
                      .help = "Like shm, but use huge pages",
                    },
#endif
                    { .ival = "mmap",
                      .oval = MEM_MMAP,
                      .help = "Use mmap(2) (file or anon) for IO buffers",
                    },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_HUGETLB
                    { .ival = "mmaphuge",
                      .oval = MEM_MMAPHUGE,
                      .help = "Like mmap, but use huge pages",
                    },
#endif
              },
      },
      {
            .name = "iomem_align",
            .alias      = "mem_align",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(mem_align),
            .minval     = 0,
            .help = "IO memory buffer offset alignment",
            .def  = "0",
            .parent     = "iomem",
      },
      {
            .name = "verify",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(verify),
            .help = "Verify data written",
            .def  = "0",
            .posval = {
                    { .ival = "0",
                      .oval = VERIFY_NONE,
                      .help = "Don't do IO verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "md5",
                      .oval = VERIFY_MD5,
                      .help = "Use md5 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc64",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC64,
                      .help = "Use crc64 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc32",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC32,
                      .help = "Use crc32 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc32c-intel",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC32C_INTEL,
                      .help = "Use hw crc32c checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc32c",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC32C,
                      .help = "Use crc32c checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc16",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC16,
                      .help = "Use crc16 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "crc7",
                      .oval = VERIFY_CRC7,
                      .help = "Use crc7 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "sha256",
                      .oval = VERIFY_SHA256,
                      .help = "Use sha256 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "sha512",
                      .oval = VERIFY_SHA512,
                      .help = "Use sha512 checksums for verification",
                    },
                    { .ival = "meta",
                      .oval = VERIFY_META,
                      .help = "Use io information",
                    },
                    {
                      .ival = "null",
                      .oval = VERIFY_NULL,
                      .help = "Pretend to verify",
                    },
            },
      },
      {
            .name = "do_verify",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(do_verify),
            .help = "Run verification stage after write",
            .def  = "1",
            .parent = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name = "verifysort",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(verifysort),
            .help = "Sort written verify blocks for read back",
            .def  = "1",
            .parent = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name   = "verify_interval",
            .type   = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1   = td_var_offset(verify_interval),
            .minval     = 2 * sizeof(struct verify_header),
            .help   = "Store verify buffer header every N bytes",
            .parent     = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name = "verify_offset",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .help = "Offset verify header location by N bytes",
            .def  = "0",
            .cb   = str_verify_offset_cb,
            .parent     = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name = "verify_pattern",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_verify_pattern_cb,
            .help = "Fill pattern for IO buffers",
            .parent     = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name = "verify_fatal",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(verify_fatal),
            .def  = "0",
            .help = "Exit on a single verify failure, don't continue",
            .parent = "verify",
      },
      {
            .name = "verify_async",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(verify_async),
            .def  = "0",
            .help = "Number of async verifier threads to use",
            .parent     = "verify",
      },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_CPU_AFFINITY
      {
            .name = "verify_async_cpus",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_verify_cpus_allowed_cb,
            .help = "Set CPUs allowed for async verify threads",
            .parent     = "verify_async",
      },
#endif
      {
            .name = "write_iolog",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(write_iolog_file),
            .help = "Store IO pattern to file",
      },
      {
            .name = "read_iolog",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(read_iolog_file),
            .help = "Playback IO pattern from file",
      },
      {
            .name = "exec_prerun",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(exec_prerun),
            .help = "Execute this file prior to running job",
      },
      {
            .name = "exec_postrun",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(exec_postrun),
            .help = "Execute this file after running job",
      },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_IOSCHED_SWITCH
      {
            .name = "ioscheduler",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_STORE,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ioscheduler),
            .help = "Use this IO scheduler on the backing device",
      },
#endif
      {
            .name = "zonesize",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(zone_size),
            .help = "Give size of an IO zone",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "zoneskip",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(zone_skip),
            .help = "Space between IO zones",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "lockmem",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_VAL,
            .cb   = str_lockmem_cb,
            .help = "Lock down this amount of memory",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "rwmixread",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_rwmix_read_cb,
            .maxval     = 100,
            .help = "Percentage of mixed workload that is reads",
            .def  = "50",
      },
      {
            .name = "rwmixwrite",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_rwmix_write_cb,
            .maxval     = 100,
            .help = "Percentage of mixed workload that is writes",
            .def  = "50",
      },
      {
            .name = "rwmixcycle",
            .type = FIO_OPT_DEPRECATED,
      },
      {
            .name = "nice",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(nice),
            .help = "Set job CPU nice value",
            .minval     = -19,
            .maxval     = 20,
            .def  = "0",
      },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_IOPRIO
      {
            .name = "prio",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_prio_cb,
            .help = "Set job IO priority value",
            .minval     = 0,
            .maxval     = 7,
      },
      {
            .name = "prioclass",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_prioclass_cb,
            .help = "Set job IO priority class",
            .minval     = 0,
            .maxval     = 3,
      },
#endif
      {
            .name = "thinktime",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(thinktime),
            .help = "Idle time between IO buffers (usec)",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "thinktime_spin",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(thinktime_spin),
            .help = "Start think time by spinning this amount (usec)",
            .def  = "0",
            .parent     = "thinktime",
      },
      {
            .name = "thinktime_blocks",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(thinktime_blocks),
            .help = "IO buffer period between 'thinktime'",
            .def  = "1",
            .parent     = "thinktime",
      },
      {
            .name = "rate",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(rate[0]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(rate[1]),
            .help = "Set bandwidth rate",
      },
      {
            .name = "ratemin",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ratemin[0]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(ratemin[1]),
            .help = "Job must meet this rate or it will be shutdown",
            .parent     = "rate",
      },
      {
            .name = "rate_iops",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(rate_iops[0]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(rate_iops[1]),
            .help = "Limit IO used to this number of IO operations/sec",
      },
      {
            .name = "rate_iops_min",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(rate_iops_min[0]),
            .off2 = td_var_offset(rate_iops_min[1]),
            .help = "Job must meet this rate or it will be shutdown",
            .parent     = "rate_iops",
      },
      {
            .name = "ratecycle",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(ratecycle),
            .help = "Window average for rate limits (msec)",
            .def  = "1000",
            .parent = "rate",
      },
      {
            .name = "invalidate",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(invalidate_cache),
            .help = "Invalidate buffer/page cache prior to running job",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "sync",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(sync_io),
            .help = "Use O_SYNC for buffered writes",
            .def  = "0",
            .parent = "buffered",
      },
      {
            .name = "bwavgtime",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(bw_avg_time),
            .help = "Time window over which to calculate bandwidth"
                    " (msec)",
            .def  = "500",
      },
      {
            .name = "create_serialize",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(create_serialize),
            .help = "Serialize creating of job files",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "create_fsync",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(create_fsync),
            .help = "Fsync file after creation",
            .def  = "1",
      },
      {
            .name = "create_on_open",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(create_on_open),
            .help = "Create files when they are opened for IO",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "pre_read",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(pre_read),
            .help = "Preread files before starting official testing",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "cpuload",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(cpuload),
            .help = "Use this percentage of CPU",
      },
      {
            .name = "cpuchunks",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(cpucycle),
            .help = "Length of the CPU burn cycles (usecs)",
            .def  = "50000",
            .parent = "cpuload",
      },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_CPU_AFFINITY
      {
            .name = "cpumask",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_cpumask_cb,
            .help = "CPU affinity mask",
      },
      {
            .name = "cpus_allowed",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .cb   = str_cpus_allowed_cb,
            .help = "Set CPUs allowed",
      },
#endif
      {
            .name = "end_fsync",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(end_fsync),
            .help = "Include fsync at the end of job",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "fsync_on_close",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(fsync_on_close),
            .help = "fsync files on close",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "unlink",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(unlink),
            .help = "Unlink created files after job has completed",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "exitall",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .cb   = str_exitall_cb,
            .help = "Terminate all jobs when one exits",
      },
      {
            .name = "stonewall",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(stonewall),
            .help = "Insert a hard barrier between this job and previous",
      },
      {
            .name = "new_group",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(new_group),
            .help = "Mark the start of a new group (for reporting)",
      },
      {
            .name = "thread",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(use_thread),
            .help = "Use threads instead of forks",
      },
      {
            .name = "write_bw_log",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(write_bw_log),
            .cb   = str_write_bw_log_cb,
            .help = "Write log of bandwidth during run",
      },
      {
            .name = "write_lat_log",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(write_lat_log),
            .cb   = str_write_lat_log_cb,
            .help = "Write log of latency during run",
      },
      {
            .name = "hugepage-size",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(hugepage_size),
            .help = "When using hugepages, specify size of each page",
            .def  = __stringify(FIO_HUGE_PAGE),
      },
      {
            .name = "group_reporting",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(group_reporting),
            .help = "Do reporting on a per-group basis",
      },
      {
            .name = "zero_buffers",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(zero_buffers),
            .help = "Init IO buffers to all zeroes",
      },
      {
            .name = "refill_buffers",
            .type = FIO_OPT_STR_SET,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(refill_buffers),
            .help = "Refill IO buffers on every IO submit",
      },
#ifdef FIO_HAVE_DISK_UTIL
      {
            .name = "disk_util",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(do_disk_util),
            .help = "Log disk utilization statistics",
            .def  = "1",
      },
#endif
      {
            .name = "gtod_reduce",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .help = "Greatly reduce number of gettimeofday() calls",
            .cb   = str_gtod_reduce_cb,
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "disable_clat",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(disable_clat),
            .help = "Disable completion latency numbers",
            .parent     = "gtod_reduce",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "disable_slat",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(disable_slat),
            .help = "Disable submissionn latency numbers",
            .parent     = "gtod_reduce",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "disable_bw_measurement",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(disable_bw),
            .help = "Disable bandwidth logging",
            .parent     = "gtod_reduce",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = "gtod_cpu",
            .type = FIO_OPT_INT,
            .cb   = str_gtod_cpu_cb,
            .help = "Setup dedicated gettimeofday() thread on this CPU",
            .verify     = gtod_cpu_verify,
      },
      {
            .name = "continue_on_error",
            .type = FIO_OPT_BOOL,
            .off1 = td_var_offset(continue_on_error),
            .help = "Continue on non-fatal errors during I/O",
            .def  = "0",
      },
      {
            .name = NULL,
      },
};

void fio_options_dup_and_init(struct option *long_options)
{
      struct fio_option *o;
      unsigned int i;

      options_init(options);

      i = 0;
      while (long_options[i].name)
            i++;

      o = &options[0];
      while (o->name) {
            long_options[i].name = (char *) o->name;
            long_options[i].val = FIO_GETOPT_JOB;
            if (o->type == FIO_OPT_STR_SET)
                  long_options[i].has_arg = no_argument;
            else
                  long_options[i].has_arg = required_argument;

            i++;
            o++;
            assert(i < FIO_NR_OPTIONS);
      }
}

int fio_options_parse(struct thread_data *td, char **opts, int num_opts)
{
      int i, ret;

      sort_options(opts, options, num_opts);

      for (ret = 0, i = 0; i < num_opts; i++)
            ret |= parse_option(opts[i], options, td);

      return ret;
}

int fio_cmd_option_parse(struct thread_data *td, const char *opt, char *val)
{
      return parse_cmd_option(opt, val, options, td);
}

void fio_fill_default_options(struct thread_data *td)
{
      fill_default_options(td, options);
}

int fio_show_option_help(const char *opt)
{
      return show_cmd_help(options, opt);
}

static void __options_mem(struct thread_data *td, int alloc)
{
      struct thread_options *o = &td->o;
      struct fio_option *opt;
      char **ptr;
      int i;

      for (i = 0, opt = &options[0]; opt->name; i++, opt = &options[i]) {
            if (opt->type != FIO_OPT_STR_STORE)
                  continue;

            ptr = (void *) o + opt->off1;
            if (*ptr) {
                  if (alloc)
                        *ptr = strdup(*ptr);
                  else {
                        free(*ptr);
                        *ptr = NULL;
                  }
            }
      }
}

/*
 * dupe FIO_OPT_STR_STORE options
 */
void options_mem_dupe(struct thread_data *td)
{
      __options_mem(td, 1);
}

void options_mem_free(struct thread_data fio_unused *td)
{
#if 0
      __options_mem(td, 0);
#endif
}

unsigned int fio_get_kb_base(void *data)
{
      struct thread_data *td = data;
      unsigned int kb_base = 0;

      if (td)
            kb_base = td->o.kb_base;
      if (!kb_base)
            kb_base = 1024;

      return kb_base;
}

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